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*excessive /ɪkˈsɛsɪv/

adj. too much or too great;surpass;exaggerated;extravagant 過多的;過度的;extreme;exorbitant 極端的

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【推測詞義】走過頭了,走出界線外的,越界的。

【衍生詞】excess  n. overabundance of something 過量

                   exceed  v. to go beyond;to surpass;to outstrip 超越;凌駕於…之上

【常用片語】  a) excessive bleeding (流血過多)

                       b) excessive greed (貪得無厭)

                       c) excess in drinking (飲酒過度)

                       d) excess luggage (行李過重)

 

exculpate /ˈɛkskʌlˌpet/

v. to free someone from fault or guilt;to prove innocent or guiltless;exonerate 使(人)無罪;申明無罪;辯白

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【推測詞義】使(某人)從罪中出來,罪離開了,表示某人無罪(take the blame out)。

【常用片語】to exculpate oneself (證明自己的清白)

 

execrable /ˈɛksɪkrəbḷ /

adj. detestable;awful;very bad;horrible;abominable;deserving hate 令人討厭的;差勁透頂的;令人憎恨的;(天氣等)惡劣的

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【推測詞義】神聖性已走出的(事物)就是令人討厭的(事物)。

【衍生詞】execrate  v. to loathe;to detest;to abhor;to hate 討厭;憎惡;to curse 咒罵

 

*exert /ɪgˈzɚt/

v. to endeavor;to use ones efforts 努力;盡力;用力;to apply (oneself) with great energy;to put forth, as power;to exercise, as ability or influence 發揮或運用(能力等);行使(權力等);to use influence to affect something 帶來(影響、壓力等)

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【推測詞義】(把學校所學的)連接出去(在工作上)。

【常用片語】(to) exert oneself to the utmost 全力以赴 (to use one’s efforts)

【衍生詞】exertion  n. effort;endeavor努力;盡力;費力;application;employment;exercise (能力、權力、技術等)發揮,行使

【常用片語】  a) (to) exert one’s influence (運用影響力)

                       b) (to) exert one’s leadership abilities (發揮自己的領導能力)

                       c) (to) exert all one’s strength (盡全力)

                       d) (to) redouble one’s exertions (加倍努力)

                       e) (to) the exertion of authority (權力的行使)

                       f) physical / mental exertion (竭盡體力/智力)

【常用句子】John exerted himself to pass the exam. (約翰為了通過考試而盡力。)

 

exemplary /ɪgˈzɛmpləri/

adj. serving as a model, illustration, or warning;worthy of imitation;commendable;laudable 模範的;典型的;作為例證的;懲戒性的

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【推測詞義】把(某物)拿出來作為好的或警告的例子。隱喻為「榜樣的、典型的、楷模的、懲戒的」。

【衍生詞】 exemplify  v. to be a typical example of something 舉例說明;作為…的例子

                  exemplar  n. epitome;paragon;archetype;prototype 模範;典型;原型

 

*exhaustive /ɪgˈzɔstɪv/

adj. leaving nothing out;thorough;complete;comprehensive;encyclopedic沒有遺漏的;徹底的;詳盡無遺的;完全的

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【推測詞義】把(水)向外抽,抽到空為止。

【衍生詞】 exhaust  v. to use up;to comsume;to deplete 耗盡(資源、體力等);to tire or wear out;

                                 to make very weary 使(人)精疲力竭

                   exhaustion  n. great fatigue or weariness 精疲力盡;complete consumption 耗盡;枯竭

 

*exhibit /ɪgˈzɪbɪt/

v. to present or expose to view;to show;to display 展示;展現

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【推測詞義】把自己持有(的東西)放到外面,即展示。

 

*exorbitant /ɪgˈzɔrbətənt/

adj. greater than a normal or reasonable limit;expensive;extravagant;excessive;prohibitive (價格、成本、利率等)過高的;過度的;不合理的

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【推測詞義】超出常軌、越軌了(out of the track)。隱喻為「(價格)高得離譜的」

【常用片語】an exorbitant cost/ price/ rate of interest 過高的成本、價格、利率 (much too high, especially referring to the price of something)

 

exonerate /ɪgˈzɑnəˌret/

v. to free from guilt, blame, responsibility, obligation, or task;to absolve 使(人)免除或解除(義務、責任等);to acquit;to exculpate 使(某人)免罪;赦免(罪、責備等)

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【推測詞義】把負擔(責任、義務、罪、責備等)拿走(take the burden out, disburden),就是免除(責任、義務、罪等)。

【用法】exonerate (免罪)與pardon (特赦)的不同在於exonerate需要新的證據來將已定罪的人除罪化,而pardon則是減免其刑期,也就是說exonerate是證明罪犯的清白。自20世紀末起,新的物證提供方式,如:DNA採樣,使得exonerate的案件數持續增加。

 

*expedite /ˈɛkspɪˌdaɪt/

v. to speed up the process or progress of;to accelerate;to quicken; to facilitate加速;促進

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【推測詞義】把腳上的腳鐐拿走(to get the foot out of an entanglement;to free the foot),就能加速行動。

【衍生詞】 expediency   n. advantageousness方便;合宜;the use of methods that produces an immediate

                                        solution to a problem, but may not be fair or honest權宜之計

                   expedient   adj. proper for getting a desired result, often without regard for what is fair or honest

                                      適合的;權宜的;useful or helpful in getting a desired result;desirable;

                                      advantageous方便的;

                   expedition  n. journey for a definite purpose;a long trip 遠征;the people involved in an

                                      expedition 遠征隊;speed;haste;promptness 迅速

                   expeditious  adj. speedy;quick;prompt;rapid 迅速的

 

*expel /ɪkˈspɛl/

v. to drive out by force or force out;to force to leave, usually by official action;to oust;to eject;to banish 驅逐;逐出;開除

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【推測詞義】往外推。

【衍生詞】expulsion  n. a pusing out;banishment 驅逐;逐出;除名

【常用片語】  a) (to) be expelled from the school/a party 被學校開除 / 開除黨籍

                       b) an expulsion orde (驅逐出境的命令)

 

*explicit /ɪkˈsplɪsɪt/

adj. clearly stated or shown;definite;not implicit;obvious (說明、陳述等)明確的;明示的;unequivocal;frank;straightforward 坦率的;直言不諱的

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【推測詞義】把折疊(的內容)向外翻出來(folded outward),就可以明確敘述(內容)。

 

*exploit /ˌɪkˈsplɔɪt/

v. to utilize productively;to take advantage of 開發利用(資源等);開墾(處女地);to make use of unjustly or selfishly for one’s own advantage or profit (出於私心而)剝削;濫用;to make profit from the labor of others 壓榨(勞工等)

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【推測詞義】源自拉丁語explicitus ‘unfold’,經由古法語傳入英語。把折疊在土地內的資源開發出來,為人所利用。後來因為這個字常用在勞工身上,於是有了負面的意思「壓榨」。

【衍生詞】 exploitation  n. making full use of (資源的)開發,開採;utilization for selfish purpose (出於

                                        私利的)利用;榨取;剝削

                   exploitative / exploitive    adj. exploiting (對自然資源)開發的;利用的;剝削的;榨取的

 

*explore /ɪkˈsplor/

v. to travel for the purpose of discovery 探險;探測(未知的地方);to look into closely;to examine carefully;to investigate;to survey 仔細查閱(問題等);實地調查

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【推測詞義】原為獵人用語,意為「喊出獵物」。獵人大喊把獵物從洞穴裡嚇出來(set up a load cry to scare an animal from its hiding place),引申為在狩獵區「探查」。

 

*expand /ɪkˈspænd/

v. to increase in size, scope, or volume, etc.;to enlarge 體積、數量的增大;to unfold;to extend;to augment 擴展;擴大;to swell;to dilate;to inflate 使脹大;使膨脹

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【推測詞義】向外擴散(to spread out;to stretch out)。

【衍生詞】 expansion  n. enlargement;dilation擴展;膨脹

                   expansive  adj. capable of expanding;widespread 能擴張的;能膨脹的;廣大的

【常用片語】  a) expansion of territory (領土擴張)

                       b) industrial expansion (產業的發展)

【常用句子】John expanded his business. (約翰擴大了他的事業。)

 

*experimental /ɪkˌspɛrɪˈmɛntḷ /

adj. exploratory;trial;tentative;pilot實驗(用)的;試驗(性)的;根據實驗的;empirical;based on experience rather than on theory or authority 經驗的

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【推測詞義】試驗出來以獲得對某事的知識。

 

*expose /ɪksˈpoz/

v. to reveal;to disclose;to uncover 使暴露(於日光、風雨等),揭發或洩漏(秘密等)

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【推測詞義】放在外面,就是使其暴露。

 

*extend /ɪkˈstɛnd/

v. to stretch out (把手、腳等)伸出;to widen;to expand;to increase size/range/length/power/influence, etc. 擴張(勢力,土地、信用等);to make longer in time or space;to prolong;to lengthen (時間、空間的)延長(至…);to offer or grant 給予(幫助、救助、友誼等)

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【推測詞義】向外伸出,也就是擴張、延長。

【衍生詞】extensive  adj. broadfar-reaching (場所)廣大的;廣泛的

【常用片語】  a) (to) extend a visa (簽證延期)

                       b) (to) extend help to the refugees (向難民伸出援手)

                       c) (to) extend a deadline (延長截止期限)

                       d) (to) extend a warm welcome to somebody 熱烈歡迎某人

                       e) extensive reading (廣讀)

                       f) extended family (大家庭(包括近親))

 

*extract /ɪkˈstrækt/

v. to pull out or draw out forcibly;to remove 拔出;取出;擠出;抽出

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【推測詞義】把(東西)拔出或拉出來。
 

*extricate /ˈɛkstrɪˌket/

v. to set free;to release or disentangle;to remove 使(人或事物)解脫;(從危機、困境)救出

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【推測詞義】使(人或事物)從障礙物中出來,使其脫離。

【常用片語】(to) extricate somebody from a crisis (使某人擺脫危機)

 

extirpate /ˈɛkstɚˌpet/

v. to destroy or remove completely;to abolish;to eradicate;to exterminate 根絕;根除(壞習慣等)

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【推測詞義】把根挖出土壤(讓植物不能繼續生長),意為「根除、根絕」。

 

exude /ɪgˈzjud/

v. (of drops of liquid) to come out slowly;to ooze out 使(汗、水滴等)慢慢滲出;to give off;to diffuse 散發(氣味等)

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【推測詞義】汗水慢慢滲出。

 

 

3.1.2 向上 (up)

 

elevate /ˈɛləˌvet/

v. to raise;to lift up 舉起;提高(心靈、士氣等);使情緒高昂;to raise in rank or status;to promote提升(地位、職位等)

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【推測詞義】使上升。

【衍生詞】elevator  n. 電梯

【常用片語】  a) (to) elevate the living standards of the people (提升人民的生活水準。)

                       b) (to) elevate the morale (提高士氣)

【常用句子】  a) An elevator lifts things up. (電梯把東西往上抬。)

                       b) Reading good books elevates your mind. (讀好書可以提升心靈。)

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