莫清崴-從詞「形、音、綴」的觀點解析高頻率的字彙-800X420.jpg

assassinate /əˈsæsɪnet/

v. to murder for political or religious reasons; to kill (暗殺,行刺)

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【推測詞義】assassin 原指殺人前需吸食大麻的伊斯梅利(Ismaili)狂徒。
【詞源】assassin(暗殺者,刺客)源自於阿拉伯語hashshashin,指hashish-eaters or smokers,即吸食大麻者,其中hashish即印度大麻(hemp)。大約在1090年,Hassan ben Sabbah在巴黎嫩山區建立了一支狂熱的伊斯蘭教派,稱為Ismaili,對教主要絕對服從,發誓要殺死參加十字軍東征的基督教徒,尤其是基督教領袖。在出任務前,暗殺團員吸食印度大麻變得極度興奮而進行秘密暗殺活動。

 

assuage /əˈswedʒ/

v. to pacify; to calm; to soothe (anger or passions) (平息(怒氣等);使(痛苦、生氣等) 緩和; to ease; to relieve or to lessen (grief or pain); to alleviate; to allay; to mitigate; to mollify (減輕(痛苦);撫慰(人心))

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【推測詞義】向…(說些)甜言蜜語,使(某人)平息怒氣,緩和痛苦。-age 是藉由古法語引進的拉丁名詞後綴。偶而當作動詞後綴,但這類動詞為數不多。

【衍生詞】assuagement n. 緩和(物)
【常用片語】to assuage tension 緩和緊張狀態

 

assume /əˈsjum/

v. to take as true before there is proof; to suppose; to believe; to presume; to take for granted (假定,認為,推斷) ; to take on duties; to take up ; to undertake (接受(任務等),承擔(責任) )

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【推測詞義】取向自己,自己認為。

【衍生詞】assumption n.belief; supposition(設想;假定;所設的假定而未經證實之事;視為當然之事)

 

attach /əˈtætʃ/

v. to fasten; to fix; to join (依附,附加)

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【推測詞義】用扣環(tach)依附住。

 

attain /əˈten/

v. to reach; to arrive at (達到某年齡、水平、完美); to achieve; to accomplish by continued effort (通常經過努力)獲得名聲,財富等);達成(目的等)

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【推測詞義】朝向某物抓取,以便握住。

【衍生詞】attainable adj. 可達到的;可獲得的

【常用片語】attain one’s object (達成目的)

                   attain to perfection (到達完美之境)

 

attribute /əˈtrɪbjut/

v. to refer to; to impute; to ascribe; to credit (把…歸因於)

n. quality; characteristic (屬性;特質;特性)

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【推測詞義】(果)歸給(因),即為「歸因於」。
【常用例句】Faithfulness is an attribute of dogs. (忠實是狗的屬性)

 

ascertain /ˌæsɚˈten/

v. to find out for certain by trial and research; to determine; to discover; to realize (確定(事實等);to discover (事實等)查明;探查)

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【推測詞義】本義為「使確知」(make sure or certain)。要使(事實、證據等)走向確定,得先查明、弄清。

 

acquaint /əˈkwent/

v. to make someone aware of or familiar with ((使)熟知,(使)熟悉);to notify;to inform a person about something new (通知,告知)

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【推測詞義】源自古法語acointer。向某人告知,欲使某人知道某事。(let someone know)

【衍生詞】acquaintance n.熟人;知曉,熟悉

 

acknowledge /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/

v. to admit truth or reality of something; to recognize as genuine or valid; to certify (認知,承認…的合法[正當]性);to express gratitude for or appreciation of;thank (對贈品,幫忙等)道謝,致謝); recognize receipt of something (告知(信件、禮物等的)收到)

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【推測詞義】某人知道了實情,因此不得不向他做出承認的動作。
【常用片語】acknowledge defeat / faults (認輸,承認過失)

 

adapt /əˈdᴂpt/

v. to adjust to a different situation(使適應) ; to alter; to change; to modify (將…改編或改寫)

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【推測詞義】使適合(to make fit or suitable)。

【衍生詞】adaptation n. adjustment (適應,適合);modification (改變,改編,修改,修正)

 adaptable adj.adjustable; able to change (能適應新環境的;適應性強的)

 

adept adj. /əˈdɛpt/ n. /ˈædɛpt/

adj. highly skilled; skillful; proficient; deft;adroit ; capable ; completely versed in (擅長的;熟練的(常用介詞in或at);內行的)

n. expert; a skilled or proficient person (高手;專家;內行)

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【推測詞義】中世紀煉金術士常用拉丁語adeptus來代表自己是「擅長煉金術奧秘的人」,後來詞義擴大,不再囿於煉金術,作形容詞用,表示「熟練的」,也作名詞用,指「高手」。

 

adjunct /ˈædʒʌkt/

n. something added or joined; accessory; addition (附屬物;附件)

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【推測詞義】被合併的東西,就是附屬品。

 

adhere /ədˈhɪr/

v. to stick fast; to stay attached; to cling; to glue (黏附;附著於);to conform to or follow rules exactly;to abide by;to comply (奉行(規則)等),遵循)

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【推測詞義】黏住,黏著。(detach 是adhere的反義詞)

【衍生詞】adherent n.one who follows a leader, a party, or a profession(追隨者,擁護者) 

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