莫清崴-從形音綴談起-800X420.jpg

*attach /əˈtætʃ/

v. to fasten; to fix; to join (附上,附加)

20170209-1.jpg

【推測詞義】用扣環(tach)依附住。

【衍生詞】attachment (to) n. act of attaching 附帶;附屬;preference(for)迷戀,愛慕

 

*attain /əˈten/

v. to reach; to arrive at 達到某年齡、繁榮、完美; to achieve; to accomplish by continued effort (通常經過努力)獲得名聲,財富等;達成(目的等)

20170209-2.jpg

【推測詞義】朝向某物抓取,以便握住。

【衍生詞】attainment n. 達成;(複數)學識,造詣

【常用片語】a) to attain one’s object (達成目的)

                    b) to attain to perfection/prosperity (到達完美/繁榮)之境

                    c) to attain  to the age of twenty (已經二十歲了)

                    d) the attainment of one’s goal 達成目標

【常用句子】Richard is a scholar of great attainments. (理查是位學識淵博的學者)

 

*attribute /əˈtrɪbjut/

v. to refer to; to impute; to ascribe; to credit 把…歸因於

n. quality; characteristic 屬性;特質;特性

20170209-3.jpg

【推測詞義】(果)歸給(因),即為「歸因於」。
【常用句子】a) Faithfulness is an attribute of dogs. (忠實是狗的屬性)

                     b) Richard attribuites his success to hard work. (理查把他的成功歸因於努力工作)

 

ascertain /ˌæsɚˈten/

v. to find out for certain by trial and research; to determine 確定(事實等) (常接名詞子句);to get to know, to discover 查明(事實等);探查

20170209-4.jpg

【推測詞義】本義為「使確知」(make sure or certain) 。要使(事實、證據等)走向確定,得先查明、

弄清。

【常用句子】a) The police tried to ascertain the facts about the fire. (警方試著查明火災的真相)

                    b) The police ascertained that the suspect was dead. (警方確定嫌犯已經死了。)

 

*acquaint /əˈkwent/

v. to make someone aware of or familiar with (使)熟知,(使)熟悉;to notify;to inform a person about something new 通知,告知

20170209-5.jpg

【推測詞義】源自古法語acointer。向某人告知,欲使某人知道某事 (let someone know) 。

【衍生詞】acquaintance n.熟人(親密程度比friend差);(與人)相識
【常用片語】a casual acquaintance 泛泛之交

 

*acquisitive /əˈkwɪzɪtɪv/

adj. eager to obtain wealth, knowledge, etc. 想獲得的;渴望得到的;seeking to acquire and own, often greedily;avaricious;covetous 貪婪的

20170209-6.jpg

【推測詞義】欲尋求的,想要的(seeking to get, often greedly)

【衍生詞】acquire v. obtain 靠自己努力學習取得或獲得

                    acquisition n. act of acquiring 獲得,習得; things acquired (獲得之物)

【常用片語】a) language acquisition (語言習得)

                    b) be acquisitive of money (貪圖錢財)

                    c) the acquisitive society (貪婪的社會)

 

*acknowledge /əkˈnɒlɪdʒ/

v. to admit truth or reality of something; to recognize as genuine or valid; to certify (認知,承認…的合法[正當]性);to express gratitude or thanks for (對贈品,幫忙等)道謝,致謝;to recognize receipt of something 告知(信件、禮物等的)收到

20170209-7.jpg

【推測詞義】某人知道了實情,因此向他做出承認的動作。
【常用片語】to acknowledge defeat / one’s mistake (認輸,認錯)

 

*adapt /əˈdᴂpt/

v. to make suitable for a new situation使適應; 使適合 ; to alter; to change; to modify 將…改編或改寫

20170209-8.jpg

【推測詞義】使適合(to make fit or suitable)。

【衍生詞】adaptation n. adjustment (適應,適合);modification 改變,改編,修改,修正

                 adaptable adj.adjustable; able to change 能適應新環境的;可改編的

 

*adept adj. /əˈdɛpt/ n. /ˈædɛpt/

adj. highly skilled; skillful; proficient; deft;adroit ; completely versed in 擅長的;熟練的;內行的

 (與介詞in連用,後接名詞;與介詞at連用,後接動名詞)

n. expert; a skilled or proficient person 高手;專家;內行

20170209-9.jpg

【推測詞義】中世紀煉金術士常用拉丁語adeptus來代表自己是「擅長煉金術奧秘的人」,後來詞義擴大,不再囿於煉金術,作形容詞用,表示「熟練的」,也作名詞用,指「高手」。

 

*adequate /ˈædəkwət/

adj. enough; sufficient 足夠的;充分的

20170209-10.jpg

【推測詞義】與(需求)相等(equal to what is required) 也就是充分但剛好夠應付需求

 

adjunct /ˈædʒʌkt/

n. something added or joined; accessory; addition 附屬物;附件

20170209-11.jpg

【推測詞義】被合併的東西,就是附屬品。

 

*adhere /ədˈhɪr/

v. to stick fast; (to); to cling; to glue (黏著;附著於);to conform to or follow rules exactly;to abide by;to comply 奉行(規則)等),遵循

20170209-12.jpg

【推測詞義】黏住,黏著。(detach 是adhere的反義詞)

 【衍生詞】adherent n.one who follows a leader, a party, or a profession 追隨者,擁護者

 

administer /ədˈminəstɚ/

v. to manage and be responsible for (管理);look after business affairs, a household, etc.處理;照料

20170209-13.jpg

【推測詞義】minister原意是「小人,僕人」,對(國王)做僕人應做的事,即服務國王,管理或處理國王之事。

【衍生詞】administrative adj. of the management of affirs 管理的   

                 administration n. 經營,管理;行政機關

【常用片語】the Trump Administration 川普行政當局

 

*adorn /əˈdɔrn/

v. to decorate; to embellish; to add beauty to 裝飾,修飾;使更為美觀;使…生色

20170209-14.jpg

【推測詞義】給…添置配備,就是添加飾物。

【衍生詞】adornment n. ornament;decoration 裝飾;裝飾品
【常用例句】John adorned his Christmas tree with traditional ornaments. (約翰用傳統的裝飾品裝飾他的聖誕樹。)

 

adventurous /ədˈvɛntʃərəs/

adj. fond of adventures; risk-taking; rashly daring (愛冒險的,大膽的);full of danger and excitement (充滿危險和刺激的)

20170209-15.jpg

【推測詞義】即將發生的事情(things about to come)多是不可預測的,願意承擔這種風險的人,都是「愛冒險的」。

【衍生詞】adventure n. 冒險,投機         adventurer n. 冒險家;投機取巧者
【常用片語】a) an adventurous voyage 充滿危險和刺激的航行

                    b) an adventurous explorer (愛冒險的探險家)

 

*advocate v. /ˈædvəˌket/ n. / ˈædvəkɪt /

v. to support idea or cause publicly; to urge publicly; to promote ; to favor; to defend 支持;擁護;提倡 (觀點、主義、人等)

n. one who speaks in favor of a cause; one who argues publicly for a cause; supporter; proponent; defender 提倡者;擁護者(常用介詞of)

20170209-16.jpg

【推測詞義】朝向...說出自己看法(的人);向...搖旗吶喊(的人)也就是倡導(者),擁護(者)

【衍生詞】advocacy n. active support for a cause. (觀點、主義、人等的)支持,擁護,倡導

【常用例句】Advocating for about you believe in is crucial –if you don’t ask for it,people assume you don’t need it.

 

3.1.2     添加(in addition)

 

accumulate /əˈkjumjəˌlet/

v. to heap up by degrees; to collect little by little; to build up; to pile up; to gather or to amass something 堆積,累積;積聚(財產等)

20170209-17.jpg

【推測詞義】使越積越多,逐漸地增多。

【衍生詞】accumulation n. growing collection 堆積;累積;deposit;material,etc. accumulated

累積物;堆積物

【常用片語】accumulation of wealth (財富的累積)

 

3.1.3     逆向、反對(against)

adverse /ədˈvɝs/

adj. inimical; hostile; antagonistic 敵對的;unfavorable; unlucky不幸的,不利的; harmful; injurious 有害的; opposite in direction; acting in a contrary direction; opposing; contrary;negative 逆的,逆向的,

20170209-18.jpg

【推測詞義】翻轉過來對…不利的(turned against),轉而反對的,也就是逆轉向。

【衍生詞】adversary n. opponent (in a contest) (競爭中的)對手

                 adversity n. reverse; bad luck; misfortune; calamity; disaster 逆境,不幸;(複數)災禍,不幸的事

                 adversarial adj. 反對的,敵對的

【常用片語】a) be adverse to 反對,不利於
                    b) adverse circumstauces 逆境

                    c) adverse weather conditions 惡劣的天氣

                    d) adverse winds 逆風
                    e) adverse criticism 不利的批評

 

accuse /əˈkjuz/

v. charge with doing something bad; indict for 控告(人);控訴;to blame for; to condemn for 譴責

20170209-19.jpg

【推測詞義】cause的意思可指「理由,訴訟理由」。有理由說別人不對,就是「譴責,指責」。把訴訟理由朝向某人,意為「興起訴訟」。

【衍生詞】accusation n. 指控,譴責

【常用片語】to bring an accusation against 對…起訴,控訴

 

3.1.4     向上(up)

 

ascend /əˈsɛnd/

v. to climb爬(山丘,梯子等); to rise (to a higher point) ; to go up; to go upward ;(向高處)上升;登上

20170209-20.jpg

【推測詞義】往上爬,就是向上攀登,愈爬愈高。

【衍生詞】ascent n. a climbing, especially of a ladder or mountain. 攀登;the act of going up 上升,向上
【常用片語】to aecend the throne 登上王位,登基

 

 

3.1.5      鄰近(near)

adjacent /əˈdʒesənt/

adj. lying near ; nearby; neighboring; contiguous; adjoining; bordering (鄰近的;附近的;毗連的)

20170209-21.jpg

【推測詞義】躺在附近的。
【常用片語】a) adjacent towns and villages附近的城鎮和鄉村
                    b) be adjacent to 接近…

 

3.2     an- 【Greek】

【來源】否定前綴an- 源自於希臘語,意思是「不(not)、沒有(without)、缺乏(lacking)」。通常添加在源自希臘語的形容詞或名詞之前,構成反義詞。
【變體】

1. 在子音前,為維持最佳音節結構(CVCV),刪掉鼻音[n]。
an- → a / ___ + consonant (如adamant)

2. 在母音或原先不發音的h之前,不刪除鼻音[n],保留原有的形態。
an → an- / ___+  (如anonymous)

 

abysmal / əˈbɪzm!/

adj. deep; immeasurable; bottomless; unfathomable (如深淵般的;深不可測的;無底的)

20170209-22.jpg

【推測詞義】 沒有底部的
【衍生詞】abysm n. any deep, immeasurable space;a bottomless gulf (深淵;無底洞)

 

adamant /ˈædəˌmənt/

adj. hard like rock; very hard 堅硬的; inflexible; firm and unyielding; immovable; unshakable堅定不移的;obdurate; stubborn; obstinate固執的

n. 堅硬無比之物;[古]硬石(指金剛石等)

20170209-23.jpg

【推測詞義】不被壓服之物,如鑽石。源於希臘語adamas (the hardest metal,steel),但借自古法語adamaunt (the hardest stone,diamond)。1930年代起常被廣泛用作形容詞,表示「堅硬的」或「如堅石般固執的」等義。

【常用片語】to be adamant to temptation (不為誘惑所動)

    全站熱搜

    美加文教 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()