*friction /ˈfrɪkʃən/

n. the rubbing of one thing against another 摩擦;disagreement between people with different views;clash in opinion;discord;quarrel;conflictrebellion不合;衝突



【常用片語】  a) political friction(s) between countries (兩國政治上的不和)

                       b) friction(s) between parents and children (親子之間的衝突)


*fraudulent /ˈfrɔdʒələnt/

adj. acting with fraud;cheating;treacherous deceitful 欺詐的;騙得的;不正直的



【衍生詞】 fraudulence  n. malfeasance (欺詐)

                   fraud  n. deceit;trickery 詐欺;欺騙

【常用片語】  a) (to) get money by fraud (騙取錢財)

                       b) fraudulent behavior (欺騙的行為)

【常用諺語】Great negligence is a fault;gross fault is a fraud. (大疏忽是過失,大過失是欺騙。)



*fracture /ˈfræktʃɚ/

n. a break, crack, or split 折斷;破裂;裂痕;a break in a bone【醫學】骨折

v. to cause to break 使斷裂;使折斷




*fragile /ˈfrædʒəl/

adj. easily broken;breakable;brittle;delicate 易碎的;脆弱的;physically weak;frail;delicate (體質)虛弱的



【常用句子】  a) Fragile! Handle with care.  (包裝箱上用語) (易碎!搬運小心。)

                       b) Mary looks pale and fragile. (瑪麗臉色蒼白,體質虛弱。)




*fragment /ˈfrægmənt/

n. a small part broken away from a whole;a broken piece of something;scrapchip 碎片;破片;碎塊



【衍生詞】fragmentary  adj. consisting of fragments碎片的;incomplete不完整的;片段的


*frail /frel/

adj. easily broken;breakable;fragile (構造)易損壞的;脆弱的;not physically strong;weak (體質)虛弱的


【推測詞義】易於打破的 (easily broken)。

【詞源】源自古法文fraile,意思是「脆弱的、薄弱的(weak, sickly, infirm)」。 frail (F)和fragile (L)屬於同源異形詞(doublet),兩者都源自拉丁語形容詞fragilis,但用法有些差異,fragile常指具體事物,而frail常指女性意志的軟弱。

【衍生詞】frailty  n. weakness (道德上的)弱點;(意志的)薄弱

【常用句子】  a) Hamlet says, “Frailty, thy name is woman.” (哈姆雷特說:「弱者,你的名字是女人。」)

                       b) A person whose health is easily broken might be described as frail.  (一個容易生病的人



*frustrate /ˋfrʌs͵tret /

v. to nullify the effects of an action;to make ineffectual;to defeat;to thwart;to confound 挫敗;使(計畫、人等)受到挫折;to prevent a person from reaching a goal;to impede 使慾望不能滿足;使達不到某種目的



【衍生詞】frustration  n. state of being frustrated;thwarting (解決問題時受到的)阻撓;挫折;慾望得不到滿足

【常用句子】John had a sense of frustration. (約翰有一種挫折感。)


frolicsome /ˈfrɑlɪksəm/

adj. lively and playful;merry;full of high spirits 嬉戲的;歡樂的;玩樂的


【推測詞義】喜歡鬧著玩的。fr- 的語音也可表「歡樂、自由」的意思,例如:free (adj. 自由的,無約束的)、frivolous (adj. 輕浮的) (= lacking seriousnss)。

【衍生詞】frolic  v. to play in a cheerful way;to run playfully 嬉戲;玩樂

【常用片語】frolicsome children (喜歡鬧著玩的小孩)




3 前綴 (Prefix)


3.1 for (OE) (cf. L. ab-, dis-;G. apo-)


【來源】前綴for- 源自古英語for- , 原意是forth。在古英語中,它曾是相當活躍的動詞性前綴,但現今由for- 所構成的詞彙不多,只剩下三種意思存在,「離開(away, off)」、「防備(against)」、「加強語氣(completely)」。若for- 源自古法語,其意為「在外、向外(outside, out)」。


3.1.1 離開(away, off)


forbear /fɔrˈbɛr/

v. to abstain or refrain completely from;to keep from doing, saying, etc. 克制;抑制(情感);to avoid or cease (doing, saying, etc.) 避免(做…);to endure;to tolerate 【古】忍受;忍耐


【推測詞義】忍受與某物相離(bear away from something)。

【衍生詞】forbearance  n. patience忍耐;self-control;restraint自制

【用法】forbear當動詞時,其後接不定詞、動名詞或from +動名詞皆可。

【例】 He could not forbear from laughing. (他忍不住笑出來。)

            = He could not forbear to laugh.

            = He could not forbear laughing.


forgo /fɔrˈgo/

v. to abstain or refrain from completely 抑制;節制;to do without;to give up;to relinquish 放棄;捨棄(享受等)


【推測詞義】離開(go without anything)一切誘惑自己的事物,就是抑制自己,放棄一切。




3.1.2 防備(against)


*forbid /fɚˈbɪd/

v. to rule against;not to allow;to prohibit;to inhibit;to ban 不許可;禁止;不准;to make impossible;to prevent 使不可能;妨礙



【衍生詞】forbidding  adj. not approachable;repellent 難以接近的;looking dangerous, threatening, or disagreeable令人望而生畏的;險惡的

【用法】forbid其後接有受詞時,只能接不定詞,不能接動名詞。 此外,forbid常指父母、師長、朋友私下命令禁止,而prohibit常指法律或官方命令禁止,可以強制執行。

【例】 a) She always forbids us to smoke in her house. (她經常不准我們在她家裡吸煙。)

                = She always forbids us smoking in her house. (誤)

            b) Her mother forbade her to smoke. (她母親禁止她吸煙。)

            c) Smoking on public transport is prohibited by law. (法律明文規定禁止在公共交通工具上吸煙。)



3.1.3 加強語氣(completely)


*forsake /fɚˈsek/

v. to leave or desert completely;to give up;to renounce;to abandon 遺棄,拋棄(家人、朋友等);放棄(信仰等);改掉(習慣等)



【常用句子】His friends forsook him. (他的朋友遺棄他。)


*forgive / fɚˋgɪv /

v. to stop blaming and grant pardon 原諒;寬恕



【常用句子】Forgive and forget. 不念舊惡,不記前嫌(寬恕而後忘記)。


3.1.4 在外、向外(outside, out)


forfeit /ˈfɔrfɪt/

v. to lose by misconduct;to lose, give up, surrender, or be deprived of something because of some crime, fault, or neglect of duty (因犯罪、過失、懈怠等而)被沒收,喪失(財產、權利、地位等)



【衍生詞】forfeiture  n. the act of forfeiting (財產、權力、地位等)喪失

【常用片語】(to) forfeit one’s driver’s license (吊銷駕照)


foreign /ˈfɔrɪn/

adj. dealing with or relating to other countries;from another country 外國的;外來的;strange and unfamiliar 陌生的;irrelevant 無關的


【推測詞義】源自古法語forein。統治以外的地方,指向外地或外國。rein改拼為reign是受拉丁詞根regnum ‘rule’的影響。

【衍生詞】foreignness  n. the quality of being alien or not native 外來的特性;異域性

【常用片語】  a) foreign media (外國媒體)

                       b) foreign trade minister (外貿部長)

                       c) forreign debt (外債)

                       d) foreign affairs police (外事警察)



3.2 fore (OE) (cf. L. pr(a)e-;G. pro-)


【來源】前綴fore- 源於古英語副詞fore,意為「before, earlier, in advance, beforehand」或介系詞fore,意為「before, in front of」,可以指時間、空間或情況的「前」,表示「先、前、早、在前、以前」等意義。 例如:forename (與姓相對的)名(first name)。


1.前綴fore- 所構成的詞彙,重音不固定,其後若與名詞或形容詞相綴合,fore本身讀重音。若與動詞相綴合,則重音落在動詞身上。

2.前綴fore- 後接完整的單詞(word),而非詞根(root),例如:foretell (v. 預言(= predict))、forebode (v. 預感不幸、災難等)。


先;早(before;in front of, beforehand)


*foreground /ˈforˌgraund/

n. the part of a view that is nearest to the observer (圖畫、景物等的)前景;the most noticeable position 最顯眼的地位

v. to place in the foreground;to call attention to;to emphasize;to highlight 把…置於最突出地位;強調




【常用片語】transition from background singer to foreground starlet (從背景和音歌手到顯眼新星的轉變)
【常用句子】The incident foregrounds the gender issue. (這個事件凸顯了性別議題。)


forerunner /ˈforˌrʌnɚ/

n. something or someone that precedes;harbinger;herald;precursor 先驅;先引者;先驅者;forebear;forefather;predecessor前輩;先人;祖先;foretoken;omen;sign 前兆;預兆



【常用句子】Black clouds are the forerunners of a storm. (烏雲是暴風雨的前兆。)


foresee /fɔrˈsi/

v. to see or know beforehand;foreknow;to predict 預見;預知;預測



【衍生詞】foreseeable  adj. predictable可預知的;可預見的

【常用片語】in the foreseeable future 在可預見的未來


*foresight /ˈfɔrˌsaɪt/

n. perception gained by looking forward;ability to foresee future happenings;mental preparedness;prudence  先見之明;(對於將來)深謀遠慮;遠見



【衍生詞】foresighted  adj. prescient 有先見之明的;深謀遠慮的

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